Hyperglycemia

"It is necessary to get a good control of the glycaemia to prevent the medium-long term complications of the diabetic: neurological, renal damage, etc."

DR. JAVIER ESCALADA
DIRECTOR. ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NUTRITION DEPARTMENT

Hyperglycemia appears when blood glucose levels are elevated, widely exceeding the established control objectives, ketone bodies begin to be produced in the body, produced in the liver by the degradation of fats released into the bloodstream in situations of high insulin deficiency.

For this reason, it is important to carry out periodic controls of the glycaemia at home and every so often, when indicated by your doctor, it will be necessary to control the glycated hemoglobin to evaluate if the diabetes is within acceptable limits.

There are many factors that can decompensate diabetes, among the most frequent ones:

Lack of injection of insulin or oral antidiabetics.
Increased intake of carbohydrates in the diet.
Not getting enough physical exercise.
Existence of a disease or situation that increases the need for insulin, for example infections, trauma, surgery, pregnancy...

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What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia?

In a first phase a classic syndrome may appear consisting of polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (increased amount of urine), polyphagia (increased appetite) and weight loss, despite the increased appetite.

Repeat infections, poor wound healing, itching, neuropathy, coronary disease or vascular disease can also occur, especially if they occur in patients under 45 years.

What are the most common symptoms?

  • Increased thirst (polydipsia)
  • Increased amount of urine (polyuria)
  • Increased appetite (polyphagia)
  • Loss of weight.

Do you have any of these symptoms?

You may have hyperglycemia

How is hyperglycemia treated?

It is a clinical syndrome that appears in type 2 diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetics.

It is characterized by a blood glucose figure above 600 mg/dl, an increase in plastic osmolarity above 350 mOsm/l and the absence of ketone bodies in the blood. It is accompanied by manifestations such as decreased level of consciousness, which can range from drowsiness to deep coma; dehydration, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, convulsions and neurological focus.

Proper treatment consists of fluid replacement to correct dehydration and insulin administration to restore blood glucose levels to normal. 

This complication occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. The most frequent causes are infections and abandonment of insulin therapy. It is also a very common form of onset in type 1 diabetes.

The classic symptomatology begins with a picture of vomiting, increased production of urine, increased thirst, increased respiratory rate, ketone, altered level of consciousness and abdominal pain.

In the blood analysis, an increase in blood glucose of more than 300 mg/dl will appear, elevated ketone bodies in plasma, metabolic acidosis, and in urine, ketone bodies and elevated glucose will appear.

Hospital admission is necessary to establish adequate treatment consisting of fluid and ion replacement, administration of insulin to lower blood glucose levels and disappearance of urine ketones, and treatment of the causes that have precipitated the condition, such as infection. 

Where do we treat it?

IN NAVARRE AND MADRID

The Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition of the
of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra

The Department is organized into care units with specialists totally dedicated to the study, diagnosis and treatment of this type of disease.

We work with established protocols, which ensure that all diagnostic tests to be performed are done in the shortest time possible and that the most appropriate treatment is started as soon as possible in each case.

Organized in care units

  • Obesity Area.
  • Diabetes Unit.
  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Disease Unit.
  • Osteoporosis Unit
  • Other diseases: e.g. Cushing's syndrome.
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Why at the Clinica?

  • European Center of Excellence in the diagnosis and treatment of Obesity.
  • Team of specialized nurses at the Day Hospital of Endocrinology and Nutrition.
  • We have a Metabolic Research Laboratory of international prestige.

Our team of professionals

Safer than ever to continue taking care of you

We update safety protocols weekly with the latest scientific evidence and the knowledge of the best international centers with which we collaborate.