Gynecological and obstetric ultrasound
"Ultrasound is one of the most important techniques in prenatal diagnosis. In recent years, this technique has undergone extraordinary development".
DR. JUAN LUIS ALCÁZAR SPECIALIST. GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS DEPARTMENT
Routine screening ultrasounds, or those requested for some reason when the gynecologist visits the patient, are done with the conventional ultrasound (two-dimensional color Doppler).
A 3D-4D ultrasound is performed when in the conventional ultrasound alterations are observed such as: uterine malformations, pathology of the cavity of the uterus and cysts or tumors in the ovaries and in some cases of fetal anomalies.
Even so, neither 3D nor 4D ultrasound replaces 2D ultrasound, but both methods should be used together, which allows for increased diagnostic efficiency.
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When is gynecological ultrasound indicated?
It allows the diagnosis and monitoring of both physiological processes such as pregnancy, and pathological processes such as the presence of infections, cysts, tumors, etc. located in the female reproductive organs.
It is used to take biopsies or to perform amniocentesis, since it allows the visualization of the exact area on which these techniques should be performed.
When the ultrasound is performed for the study of the female reproductive organs we speak of gynecological ultrasound. When the ultrasound is performed for the follow-up of the pregnancy we speak of obstetric ultrasound.
Most frequent indications of this test:
- Diagnosis of gynecological diseases: myomas, hemorrhages, endometriosis, etc.
- Prenatal diagnosis and follow-up during pregnancy.
Do you have any of these diseases?
It may be necessary to perform a gynecological ultrasound
Types of gynecological ultrasounds
The importance of 3D-4D gynecological ultrasound is the contribution of the third plane, which represents a substantial change in the study of the organs of the female pelvis, since it is possible to observe and analyze such organs volumetrically.
The 4D ultrasound, is achieved through the sequential reconstruction of the images captured by the 3D ultrasound and that confers the sensation of movement in real time.
In terms of anatomy, what was "intuited" by conventional ultrasound, such as uterine malformations, can be seen with absolute precision with the 3D-4D ultrasound, which makes it possible to propose the appropriate and personalized therapeutic strategy in each case.
In oncological terms, ultrasound has become an important, accessible and economic tool for the differential daignosis of most tumour lesions of the female reproductive system and as an initial method to study the local extension of the disease in the case of cancer of the ovary, endometrium and cervix.
It allows the diagnosis of up to 85% of fetal malformations that have a certain structural or morphological manifestation. It also allows the identification of fetal injuries that can be treated intrauterine or at birth.
This test should be performed between 18 and 20 weeks of gestation. It is at this time that it has been shown that most fetal anomalies can be discovered. Before the 18th week, the small size of the fetus prevents adequate visualization of its organs.
In early stages of pregnancy, the anatomical study of the fetus and the search for certain subtle abnormalities (called ultrasound markers) allows us to suspect the existence of a chromosomal abnormality, although with ultrasound in no case can we be sure of this anomaly.
It is a technique that is practiced by abdominal route and allows the visualization of the fetus and its environment, ie, the placenta, amniotic fluid, etc.
It also allows, by measuring the length of the uterine cervix, to identify patients at risk of having a preterm delivery (delivery that occurs significantly earlier than expected and which involves the birth of a premature fetus) and to put in place measures to reduce the chances of that happening.
This ultrasound scan also serves to study fetal well-being by determining different measurements of the fetus, which allows the assessment of growth, as well as the estimation of its weight at birth. The determination of the so-called fetal biophysical profile assesses the overall health status of the fetus.
The performance of the maternal-fetal color Doppler technique allows the detection of alterations in the maternal-fetal circulation and is useful in some diseases of the mother such as diabetes or high blood pressure, in which the circulation could be affected and the growth of the fetus compromised.
In any case, although high resolution ultrasound provides guidance on the fetal condition, it does not by itself have an absolute value to ensure the well-being of the child.
Where do we do it?
IN NAVARRE AND MADRID
The Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the
of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra
Comprehensive care that includes a wide range of consultation and treatment options from regular preventive screening to the most advanced diagnostic and treatment options for obstetric and gynecological problems at all ages.
The department also offers routine pregnancy monitoring that includes a variety of diagnostic and screening procedures to identify potential problems of the fetus as well as its proper growth and development.
Why at the Clinica?
- Highly specialized team of doctors, nurses and midwives.
- Reproduction and Fertility Unit.
- Pregnancy follow-up with a personalized delivery.
- All the comfort, with the guarantee and safety of a hospital with the most advanced equipment.