Phase I-II trial of concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin with preoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
Aristu JJ, Arbea L, Rodriguez J, Hernández-Lizoain JL, Sola JJ, Moreno M, Azcona JD, Díaz-González JA, García-Foncillas JM, Martínez-Monge R.
Service of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, University of Navarre, Pamplona, Spain
To identify the maximal tolerated dose level of preoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with capecitabine and oxaliplatin and to evaluate the efficacy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients with rectal T3-T4 and/or N0-N+ rectal cancer received capecitabine 825 mg/m(2) twice daily Monday through Friday and oxaliplatin 60 mg/m(2) intravenously on Days 1, 8, and 15, concurrently with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The radiation dose was increased in 5.0-Gy steps in cohorts of 3 patients starting from 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions (dose level [DL] 1). DL2 and DL3 were designed to reach 42.5 Gy in 17 fractions and 47.5 Gy in 19 fractions, respectively.
No dose-limiting toxicity was observed at DL1 or DL2. Of the 3 patients treated at DL3, 1 presented with Grade 3 diarrhea, which was considered a dose-limiting toxicity, and 3 additional patients were added. Of the 6 patients treated at DL3, no new dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and DL3 was identified as the recommended dose in this study. Eight additional patients were treated at 47.5 Gy. Grade 2 proctitis was the most frequent adverse event (40%); Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 2 patients (10%). All patients underwent surgery, and 17 patients (85%) underwent R0 resection. Four patients (20%) presented with a histologic response of Grade 4, 11 (55%) with Grade 3+, 2 (15%) with Grade 3, and 2 patients (10%) with Grade 2.
The maximal tolerated dose in this study was 47.5 Gy. The high rates of pathologic response of Grade 3+ and 4 must be confirmed through the accrual of new patients in the Phase II study.
CITATION Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Jul 1;71(3):748-55