The search for novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cholangiocarcinoma
Macias RIR (1), Banales JM (2), Sangro B (3), Muntané J (4), Avila MA (5), Lozano E (6), Perugorria MJ (2), Padillo FJ (4), Bujanda L (7), Marin JJG (6).
The poor prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is in part due to late diagnosis, which is currently achieved by a combination of clinical, radiological and histological approaches.
Available biomarkers determined in serum and biopsy samples to assist in CCA diagnosis are not sufficiently sensitive and specific. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers, preferably those obtained by minimally invasive methods, such as liquid biopsy, is important.
The development of innovative technologies has permitted to identify a significant number of genetic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic CCA features with potential clinical usefulness in early diagnosis, prognosis or prediction of treatment response.
Potential new candidates must be rigorously evaluated prior to entering routine clinical application. Unfortunately, to date, no such biomarker has achieved validation for these purposes. This review is an up-to-date of currently used biomarkers and the candidates with promising characteristics that could be included in the clinical practice in the next future.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen.