The place of COMT inhibitors in the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
Schapira AH, Obeso JA, Olanow CW.
Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors block the peripheral metabolism of levodopa, increase its plasma half-life, and enhance its brain availability.
Two COMT inhibitors, tolcapone and entacapone, have recently been made available as adjunctive agents to levodopa. In PD patients with motor fluctuations, they have been shown to increase on time and reduce off time. In patients with more advanced disease, they provide similar benefits, but patients tend to experience less overall benefit and a greater likelihood of developing dopaminergic adverse events. Accordingly, closer monitoring is required.
In stable patients who have not yet developed motor complications, there are preliminary data suggesting that they experience improvements in motor function and in activities of daily living. Finally, there are theoretical reasons to consider administering a COMT inhibitor to patients from the onset of levodopa therapy in order to reduce the likelihood that motor complications will develop. COMT inhibitors are easy to administer, do not require titration, and are generally well tolerated particularly in patients with relatively mild disease.
Adverse events are primarily dopaminergic and can usually be controlled by levodopa dose adjustments. COMT inhibitors have thus proven to be a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium of PD.
CITATION Neurology. 2000;55(11 Suppl 4):S65-8; discussion S69-71