The origin of motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: importance of dopaminergic innervation and basal ganglia circuits
Obeso J.A., Rodríguez-Oroz M., Marín C., Alonso F., Zamarbide I., Lanciego J.L., Rodríguez-Díaz M.
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Center, FIMA, Clínica Universitaria and Medical School, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
The severity of dopamine depletion and the consequent pathophysiologic changes that occur in basal ganglia circuits determine the severity of parkinsonian signs.
Restoring the dopamine deficit or the downstream physiologic abnormalities improves Parkinson's Disease (PD) main motor features and as a result, attenuates the short-duration response (SDR). Therefore, both the magnitude and duration of the motor response are a function of the degree of motor severity, which is primarily governed by the loss of tonic dopaminergic activity and disruption of basal ganglia homeostatic mechanisms among which the STN-GPe/GPi circuits play a fundamental role.
As neurodegeneration advances, standard levodopa administration give rises to wider oscillations in striatal dopamine availability and pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors becomes predominant. This induces molecular and physiologic changes that further accentuate and aggravate the SDR that sustains motor fluctuations.
Treatments capable of providing and restoring more tonic and physiologic dopaminergic stimulation may avoid many of these abnormalities and lead to better clinical outcomes.
CITATION Neurology. 2004 Jan 13;62(1 Suppl 1):S17-30