The diabetic paradox: Bone mineral density and fracture in type 2 diabetes
Sonsoles Botella Martínez 1 , Nerea Varo Cenarruzabeitia 2 , Javier Escalada San Martin 3 , Amparo Calleja Canelas 3
Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and morbidity are increasing. Osteoporotic fractures are among the 'non-classical' complications of diabetes and been overlooked for a long time, maybe because of their complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
The usual tools for preventing fragility fractures (such as the fracture risk assessment tool and bone densitometry) underestimate risk of fractures in type2 diabetic patients. New techniques, such as trabecular bone score or bone turnover markers, could be useful, but greater scientific evidence is required to recommend their use in clinical practice.
The special characteristics of their pathophysiology result in decreased bone remodeling with normal or even increased bone mineral density, but with low quality. These changes lead to the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures without evidence of densitometric changes, which could be called 'the diabetic paradox'.