Technological advances in ocular trabecular meshwork in vitro models for glaucoma research
Maria Bikuna-Izagirre 1 2 , Javier Aldazabal 1 2 , Leire Extramiana 3 , Javier Moreno-Montañés 3 , Elena Carnero 3 , Jacobo Paredes 1 2
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the optic nerve. Intraocular pressure (IOP), which is considered to be the main risk factor for glaucoma development, builds up in response to the resistance (resistance to what?) provided by the trabecular meshwork (TM) to aqueous humour (AH) outflow.
Although the TM and its relationship to AH outflow has remained at the forefront of scientific interest, researchers remain uncertain regarding which mechanisms drive the deterioration of the TM.
Current tissue-engineering fabrication techniques have come up with promising approaches to successfully recreate the TM. Nonetheless, more accurate models are needed to understand the factors that make glaucoma arise. In this review, we provide a chronological evaluation of the technological milestones that have taken place in the field of glaucoma research, and we conduct a comprehensive comparison of available TM fabrication technologies.
Additionally, we also discuss AH perfusion platforms, since they are essential for the validation of these scaffolds, as well as pressure-outflow relationship studies and the discovery of new IOP-reduction therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.