Spanish normative studies (NEURONORMA-Plus project)
C Pérez-Enríquez 1 , G García-Escobar 2 , M Florido-Santiago 3 , J Piqué-Candini 4 , C Arrondo-Elizarán 5 , L Grau-Guinea 4 , B Pereira-Cuitiño 4 , R M Manero 2 , A Puig-Pijoan 2 , J Peña-Casanova 6 , G Sánchez-Benavides 7
Objective: The present study aims to provide norms and age-, education-, and sex-adjusted data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF), and the Ruff-Light Trail Learning Test (RULIT) as part of the NEURONORMA-Plus project.
Methods: We recruited 308 cognitively healthy individuals aged between 18 and 92 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores, as well as adjustments for education and sex after applying independent regression models in 2 age groups (<50 and ≥50 years).
Results: Older age had a negative effect on performance in both age groups. We observed a positive effect of education on WCST performance in the younger group (<50 years), and on all MTCF measures (with the exception of the recognition task) in the older group (≥50 years).
Education had no impact on performance in the RULIT, although sex did, with a small but significant effect whereby young men showed higher performance for one variable.
Conclusion: The normative data provided can contribute to the clinical interpretation of performance in these tests in the Spanish population.
CITATION Neurologia. 2021 Sep 20;S0213-4853(21)00117-1. doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2021.05.017