Segmental arterial mediolysis: findings at computed tomography angiography
García-Barquín P (1), Bilbao JI (2), Quílez A (2), Aragón MS (3), Vivas I (2).
To review the principal findings on computed tomography angiography for segmental arterial mediolysis, and to emphasize the points that help to differentiate it from other vasculopathies such as vasculitis. We also review the protocols for follow-up and the various treatment options.
Segmental arterial mediolysis is a rare disease that is defined as a non-atherosclerotic, non-hereditary, and non-inflammatory vasculopathy characterized by lysis of the medial layer of the arterial wall. It should be suspected in middle-aged patients with aneurysms, dissections, or spontaneous ruptures of visceral arteries of unknown etiology who do not fulfill the clinical and laboratory criteria for vasculitis.
The arteries of the abdominal organs are the most commonly affected, including the arteries of the celiac trunk and the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Radiologically, segmental arterial mediolysis can present as arterial dilation; single or multiple, saccular or fusiform aneurysms; stenoses; or dissections.