Renal cell carcinoma: vena caval invasion and prognostic factors.
Sánchez de la Muela P, Robles JE, Rosell D, Aguera L, De Castro F, Isa W, Berián JM.
Ninety-one consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma stages pT1-4/N0-3/V0-2/M0 were analyzed for survival rates. The overall 5-year survival was 57%.
Factors which made an impact on 5-year survival rates were: (1) grade of anaplasia (GI: 72%, GII: 42%, GIII: 22%; p = 0.0001); (2) pathological stage (pT1-2: 86%, pT3: 30%; p = 0.0000); (3) perinephric fat invasion (pT1-2: 86%, pT3a: 61%; p = 0.01); (4) nodal involvement (N0: 69%, N1: 11%; p = 0.0000), and (5) venous invasion (V0: 72%, V1-2: 30%; p less than 0.01). There were no differences in survival rates between V1 and V2 tumors (p greater than 0.05). Using multivariate statistical analysis we found that grade of anaplasia and venous invasion contained dire prognostic information (p = 0.0000). Among patients with stage pT3b, those without perinephric fat invasion or nodal involvement had a better survival rate than those with capsular infiltration (p less than 0.01) and a significantly better rate than those with perinephric fat invasion and nodal involvement (p less than 0.01).
Moreover, there were no differences between stages pT3b with venous invasion only and stages pT1-2 (p greater than 0.05). Patients with venous invasion developed distant metastases with a significantly higher frequency than those without (p = 0.01). The prognostic impact of venous invasion is unclear yet, but is probably related to perinephric fat invasion and nodal involvement.
Until further data are collected, the radical approach with complete removal of the thrombus remains the treatment of choice for localized renal cell carcinoma with vena caval extension.
CITATION Eur Urol. 1991;19(4):284-90