Nieto Y, Aldaz A, Rifón J, Pérez-Calvo J, Zafra A, Zufia L, Viúdez A, Viteri S, Aramendía JM, Aristu J, Centeno C, Moreno M, Sayar O, Hernández M.
Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
The purpose of this trial was to define the maximum tolerated duration (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), regimen-related toxicities (RRT), and pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine infused at a fixed dose rate (FDR) of 10 mg/m2/min, combined with docetaxel/melphalan/carboplatin, using autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
The duration of gemcitabine infusion was incrementally escalated as a single treatment on day -6 or as 4 daily infusions on days -5 to -2. Gemcitabine was followed by docetaxel (300 or 350 mg/m2) on day -5, and then melphalan (50 mg/m2/day) and carboplatin (333 mg/m2/day) on days -4 to -2. Fifty-two patients with refractory tumors were accrued with a median age of 40 (range: 6-66), a median of 3 (1-6) prior chemotherapy regimens, and 3 (1-7) organs involved. The gemcitabine MTD was defined at 20 hours (total dose 12,000 mg/m2) on both schedules. The DLT was enteritis. Three patients died from aspiration, catheter-related sepsis, and enteritis, respectively.
The tumor response rate was 91%, with 50% complete responses. At current 2-year median follow-up, the event-free and overall survival (EFS, OS) rates are 54% (median 26 months) and 79% (median not reached), respectively. Gemcitabine area under the curve (AUC), but not clearance, increased linearly with infusion duration, and correlated with grade 3 RRT. Docetaxel showed a linear increase of its AUC and similar clearance compared with prior reports at lower doses. In conclusion, ASCT-supported infusions of gemcitabine at FDR could be prolonged up to 20 hours.
The resulting gemcitabine/docetaxel/melphalan/carboplatin combination was highly active in refractory cancers and should be further tested in disease-specific trials.
CITATION Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007 Nov;13(11):1324-37