Scientific publications

Phase 1, first-in-human study of TYRP1-TCB (RO7293583), a novel TYRP1-targeting CD3 T-cell engager, in metastatic melanoma: active drug monitoring to assess the impact of immune response on drug exposure

Mar 21, 2024 | Magazine: Frontiers in Oncology

Anna Spreafico  1 , Eva Muñoz Couselo  2 , Anja Irmisch  3 , Juliana Bessa  4 , George Au-Yeung  5 , Oliver Bechter  6 , Inge Marie Svane  7 , Miguel F Sanmamed  8   9 , Valentina Gambardella  9   10 , Meredith McKean  11 , Margaret Callahan  12 , Reinhard Dummer  13 , Christian Klein  3 , Pablo Umaña  3 , Nicole Justies  4 , Florian Heil  14 , Linda Fahrni  3 , Eugenia Opolka-Hoffmann  14 , Inja Waldhauer  3 , Conrad Bleul  4 , Roland F Staack  14 , Vaios Karanikas  3 , Stephen Fowler  4

Introduction: Although checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have improved outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma, those progressing on CPIs have limited therapeutic options. To address this unmet need and overcome CPI resistance mechanisms, novel immunotherapies, such as T-cell engaging agents, are being developed. The use of these agents has sometimes been limited by the immune response mounted against them in the form of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), which is challenging to predict preclinically and can lead to neutralization of the drug and loss of efficacy.

Methods: TYRP1-TCB (RO7293583; RG6232) is a T-cell engaging bispecific (TCB) antibody that targets tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), which is expressed in many melanomas, thereby directing T cells to kill TYRP1-expressing tumor cells. Preclinical studies show TYRP1-TCB to have potent anti-tumor activity. This first-in-human (FIH) phase 1 dose-escalation study characterized the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose/optimal biological dose, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of TYRP1-TCB in patients with metastatic melanoma (NCT04551352).

Results: Twenty participants with cutaneous, uveal, or mucosal TYRP1-positive melanoma received TYRP1-TCB in escalating doses (0.045 to 0.4 mg). All participants experienced ≥1 treatment-related adverse event (TRAE); two participants experienced grade 3 TRAEs. The most common toxicities were grade 1-2 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and rash. Fractionated dosing mitigated CRS and was associated with lower levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Measurement of active drug (dual TYPR1- and CD3-binding) PK rapidly identified loss of active drug exposure in all participants treated with 0.4 mg in a flat dosing schedule for ≥3 cycles. Loss of exposure was associated with development of ADAs towards both the TYRP1 and CD3 domains. A total drug PK assay, measuring free and ADA-bound forms, demonstrated that TYRP1-TCB-ADA immune complexes were present in participant samples, but showed no drug activity in vitro.

Discussion: This study provides important insights into how the use of active drug PK assays, coupled with mechanistic follow-up, can inform and enable ongoing benefit/risk assessment for individuals participating in FIH dose-escalation trials. Translational studies that lead to a better understanding of the underlying biology of cognate T- and B-cell interactions, ultimately resulting in ADA development to novel biotherapeutics, are needed.

CITATION  Front Oncol. 2024 Mar 21:14:1346502.  doi: 10.3389/fonc.2024.1346502