Perinatal outcome and long-term follow-up of extremely low birth weight infants depending on the mode of delivery
To assess the effect of the mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean section) on survival, morbidity, and long-term psychomotor development of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.
A longitudinal observational study including 138 ELBW infants (73 born by c-section and 65 vaginally) was conducted. We analyzed the survival and short-term morbidity. We also studied the long-term neurocognitive and motor development using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA).
Mortality was significantly higher in newborns delivered vaginally (49.3%) than those delivered by c-section (23.1%). Newborns delivered vaginally had a higher incidence of retinopathy and peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (P-IVH). Children who died had lower gestational age at birth and lower birth weight. After multivariate analysis only birth weight, gestational age at birth and P-IVH were independently associated to mortality. Regarding the long-term evaluation (MSCA), we observed that children born by c-section had lower incidence of abnormal results.
The mode of delivery does not affect survival. Cesarean section provides lower morbidity and better prognosis for neurodevelopment long-term outcome in ELBW infants.
CITATION J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 Mar 7