Performance of three-dimensional power Doppler angiography as third-step assessment in differential diagnosis of adnexal masses
Utrilla-Layna J(1), Alcázar JL, Aubá M, Laparte C, Olartecoechea B, Errasti T, Juez L, Mínguez JÁ, Guerriero S, Jurado M.
(1) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, Pamplona, Spain.
To evaluate the contribution of three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler angiography (3D-PDA) to the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses.
This was a prospective study in women diagnosed with a persistent adnexal mass and subsequently scheduled for surgery in a tertiary university hospital. All women were evaluated by transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound according to a predetermined three-step protocol, with transabdominal ultrasound being performed in some cases. First, morphological evaluation of the mass was performed using gray-scale 'pattern recognition' (first step). Lesions diagnosed as having a benign pattern were considered as being at low risk of malignancy whereas tumors with solid components, ascites and/or signs of carcinomatosis were considered as being at high risk of malignancy. In both cases no further test was performed and a decision regarding clinical management, either for follow-up or surgery, was taken. Tumors with solid components but without signs of ascites or carcinomatosis were considered as being at intermediate risk of malignancy. These lesions were assessed by two-dimensional (2D) PDA to evaluate tumor vascularity (color score) (second step). Solid tumors with a color score of 1 or 2 were considered as benign and no further test was performed, while tumors with a color score of 2, 3 or 4 within solid components or a color score of 3 or 4 in the case of a solid tumor were considered as malignant. The latter group underwent 3D-PDA assessment (third step). Vascularization index (VI) was calculated in a 1-mL sphere of the most vascularized area of the tumor. When a VI ≥ 24.015% was found, the tumor was considered as malignant. All masses were removed surgically and definitive histological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for each strategy were calculated and compared. In the case of bilateral tumors, only the more suspicious one was used for analysis.
A total of 367 adnexal masses diagnosed in 367 women (mean age, 46.5 (range, 18-80) years) were evaluated during the study period. Of these, 86 masses were malignant and 281 were benign. The sensitivity and specificity for each assessment strategy were as follows: one-step, 97.7% and 78.6%; two-step, 94.2% and 97.9% (P < 0.001 for specificity when compared with that of one-step); three-step, 90.7% and 98.9% (not statistically significant when compared with that of two-step).
The addition of 2D-PDA in the differential diagnosis of an adnexal mass significantly increases specificity while sensitivity remains high; however performing subsequent 3D-PDA does not provide additional information or further improve diagnostic performance subsequent to 2D-PDA.
CITATION Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2015 May;45(5):613-7. doi: 10.1002/uog.14674.