Over the past 10 years, research into the neurophysiology of the basal ganglia has provided new insights into the pathophysiology of movement disorders.
The presence of pathological oscillations at specific frequencies has been linked to different signs and symptoms in PD and dystonia, suggesting a new model to explain basal ganglia dysfunction. These advances occurred in parallel with improvements in imaging and neurosurgical techniques, both of which having facilitated the more widespread use of DBS to modulate dysfunctional circuits.
High-frequency stimulation is thought to disrupt pathological activity in the motor cortex/basal ganglia network; however, it is not easy to explain all of its effects based only on changes in network oscillations. In this viewpoint, we suggest that a return to classic anatomical concepts might help to understand some apparently paradoxical findings.
CITATION Mov Disord. 2016 Aug 22. doi: 10.1002/mds.26714