Ocular Brachytherapy (Interventional Radiotherapy): Preserving the Vision
B Fionda 1 , M M Pagliara 2 , A J Chyrek 3 , B Guix 4 , R F J O'Day 5 , L S Fog 6 , R Martínez-Monge 7 , L Tagliaferri 8
Uveal melanoma represents the most common intraocular neoplasia among adults. Brachytherapy (interventional radiotherapy; IRT) has a great advantage, when compared with enucleation, both in terms of organ and function sparing.
The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study introduced into clinical practice a standardised procedure that allowed the equivalence of IRT with enucleation in terms of overall survival to be demonstrated. IRT is carried out by placing a plaque in direct contact with the sclera under the uveal melanoma.
Several radioactive sources may be used, including 106-ruthenium, 125-iodine, 103-palladium and 90-strontium. It is a multidisciplinary procedure requiring the collaboration of interventional radiation oncologists and ophthalmologists in the operating theatre and medical physicists for an accurate treatment time calculation. It also relies on ultrasound imaging to identify the lesion and verifiy the correct plaque placement.
An emerging tool of paramount importance could be the use of artificial intelligence and predictive models to identify those patients at higher risk of developing late side-effects and therefore who may deserve preventive and supportive therapies.