Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the 21st century: clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis
Gomez-Ibanez A, Urrestarazu E, Viteri C.
Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Espana
Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a significant issue for a neurologist because, despite its low prevalence, it mimics other pathologies, with therapeutics and prognostic outcomes. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, mainly mental status or impaired consciousness and electroencephalographic changes, so electroencephalogram is the first exploration we must perform with clinical suspicion. There are three clinical forms: generalized or absence status, with diffuse epileptiform discharges; focal, with epileptic discharges located in a specific brain area and may not affect consciousness; and subtle, with diffuse or local epileptic activity after a tonic-clonic seizure or convulsive status and limited or no motor activity.
Treatment are benzodiazepines and antiepileptic drugs; anesthetic drugs are only recommended for patients with subtle status and in some with partial complex status. Prognosis is mainly determined by etiology and associated brain damage.
CITATION Rev Neurol. 2012 Jan 16;54(2):105-13