Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab for Treatment-Naïve Metastatic Uveal Melanoma: An Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase II Trial by the Spanish Multidisciplinary Melanoma Group (GEM-1402)
José María Piulats 1 2 3 , Enrique Espinosa 3 4 , Luis de la Cruz Merino 5 , Mar Varela 6 , Lorenzo Alonso Carrión 7 , Salvador Martín-Algarra 8 , Rafael López Castro 9 , Teresa Curiel 10 , Delvys Rodríguez-Abreu 11 , Miriam Redrado 3 , Montserrat Gomà 6 , Antonio José Rullán 1 , Alfonso Calvo González 3 , Alfonso Berrocal-Jaime 12
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the combination of nivolumab (nivo) plus ipilimumab (ipi) as a first-line therapy with respect to the 12-month overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) who are not eligible for liver resection.
Methods: This was a single-arm, phase II trial led by the Spanish Multidisciplinary Melanoma Group (GEM) on nivo plus ipi for systemic treatment-naïve patients of age > 18 years, with histologically confirmed MUM, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-PS 0/1, and confirmed progressive metastatic disease (M1). Nivo (1 mg/kg once every 3 weeks) and ipi (3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks) were administered during four inductions, followed by nivo (3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks) until progressive disease, toxicity, or withdrawal. The primary end point was 12-month OS. OS, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate were evaluated every 6 weeks using RECIST (v1.1). Safety was also evaluated.
Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models comprising relevant clinical factors were used to evaluate the potential association with response to treatment and survival. Cytokines were quantified in serum samples for their putative role in immune modulation/angiogenesis and/or earlier evidence of involvement in immunotherapy.
Results: A total of 52 patients with a median age of 59 years (range, 26-84 years) were enrolled. Overall, 78.8%, 56%, and 32% of patients had liver M1, extra-liver M1, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Stable disease was the most common outcome (51.9%). The primary end point was 12-month OS, which was 51.9% (95% CI, 38.3 to 65.5). The median OS and PFS were 12.7 months and 3.0 months, respectively. PFS was influenced by higher LDH values.
Conclusions: Nivo plus ipi in the first-line setting for MUM showed a modest improvement in OS over historical benchmarks of chemotherapy, with a manageable toxicity profile.
CITATION J Clin Oncol. 2021 Feb 20;39(6):586-598. doi: 10.1200/JCO.20.00550. Epub 2021 Jan 8.