Neuromelanin-MRI to Quantify and Track Nigral Depigmentation in Parkinson's Disease: A Multicenter Longitudinal Study Using Template-Based Standardized Analysis
Yue Xing 1 2 3 , Abdul Halim Sapuan 1 2 3 , Antonio Martín-Bastida 4 5 , Saadnah Naidu 1 2 6 , Christopher Tench 1 2 3 , Jonathan Evans 6 , Gillian Sare 6 , Stefan T Schwarz 1 2 7 , Sarah Al-Bachari 8 9 10 , Laura M Parkes 11 , Sofia Kanavou 12 , Jason Raw 13 , Monty Silverdale 14 , Nin Bajaj 1 15 , Nicola Pavese 16 , David Burn 17 , Paola Piccini 4 18 , Donald G Grosset 19 , Dorothee P Auer 1 2 3
Background: Clinical diagnosis and monitoring of Parkinson's disease (PD) remain challenging because of the lack of an established biomarker. Neuromelanin-magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI) is an emerging biomarker of nigral depigmentation indexing the loss of melanized neurons but has unknown prospective diagnostic and tracking performance in multicenter settings.
Objectives: The aim was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of NM-MRI in early PD in a multiprotocol setting and to determine and compare serial NM-MRI changes in PD and controls.
Methods: In this longitudinal case-control 3 T MRI study, 148 patients and 97 controls were included from six UK clinical centers, of whom 140 underwent a second scan after 1.5 to 3 years. An automated template-based analysis was applied for subregional substantia nigra NM-MRI contrast and volume assessment. A point estimate of the period of prediagnostic depigmentation was computed.
Results: All NM metrics performed well to discriminate patients from controls, with receiver operating characteristic showing 85% accuracy for ventral NM contrast and 83% for volume. Generalizability using a priori volume cutoff was good (79% accuracy). Serial MRI demonstrated accelerated NM loss in patients compared to controls.
Ventral NM contrast loss was point estimated to start 5 to 6 years before clinical diagnosis. Ventral nigral depigmentation was greater in the most affected side, more severe cases, and nigral NM volume change correlated with change in motor severity.
Conclusions: We demonstrate that NM-MRI provides clinically useful diagnostic information in early PD across protocols, platforms, and sites. It provides methods and estimated depigmentation rates that highlight the potential to detect preclinical PD and track progression for biomarker-enabled clinical trials.
CITATION Mov Disord. 2022 May;37(5):1028-1039.
doi: 10.1002/mds.28934. Epub 2022 Feb 15.