Methotrexate in Pediatric Osteosarcoma: Response and Toxicity in Relation to Genetic Polymorphisms and Dihydrofolate Reductase and Reduced Folate Carrier 1 Expression
Ana Patiño-García (1), Marta Zalacaín (1), Lucía Marrodán (1), Mikel San-Julián (2), Luis Sierrasesúmaga (1)
(1) Laboratory of Pediatrics, University of Navarra/University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain
(2) Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
To determine the influence of the genotype and the level of expression of different enzymes involved in folate metabolism on the response to and toxicity of high-dose methotrexate treatment in pediatric osteosarcomas.
DHFR and Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) semiquantitative expression was analyzed in 34 primary and metastatic osteosarcoma tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The following polymorphisms were also analyzed in peripheral blood from 96 children with osteosarcoma and 110 control subjects: C677T, A1298C (MTHFR), G80A (RFC1), A2756G (MTR), C1420T (SHMT), the 28bp-repeat polymorphism, and 1494del6 of the TYMS gene. Treatment toxicity was scored after each cycle according to criteria from the World Health Organization
DHFR and RFC1 expression was lower in initial osteosarcoma biopsy specimens than in metastases (P = .024 and P = .041, respectively). RFC1 expression was moderately decreased in samples with poor histologic response to preoperative treatment (P = .053). Patients with osteosarcoma with G3/G4 hematologic toxicity were more frequently TT than CT/CC for C677T/MTHFR (P = .023) and GG for A2756G/MTR (P = .048 and P = .057 for gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicity, respectively).
The role of C677T/MTHFR and A2756G/MTR on chemotherapy-induced toxicity should be further investigated in pediatric osteosarcomas receiving high-dose methotrexate. Altered expression of DHFR and RFC1 is a feasible mechanism by which osteosarcoma cells become resistant to methotrexate.
CITATION J Pediatr. 2009 May;154(5):688-93