Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of timing and cognitive control in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidence of a primary time deficit
Irene Alústiza 1 , Joaquim Radua 2 , Marta Pla 3 , Raquel Martin 3 , Felipe Ortuño 3
Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are associated with deficits in both timing and cognitive control functions. However, the underlying neurological dysfunctions remain poorly understood.
The main goal of this study was to identify brain structures activated both by increases in cognitive activity and during timing tasks in patients with SZ and BD relative to controls.
We conducted two signed differential mapping (SDM) meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies assessing the brain response to increasing levels of cognitive difficulty: one concerned SZ, and the other BD patients.
We conducted a similar SDM meta-analysis on neuroimaging of timing in SZ (no studies in BD could be included). Finally, we carried out a multimodal meta-analysis to identify common brain regions in the findings of the two previous meta-analyses. We found that SZ patients showed hypoactivation in timing-related cortical-subcortical areas.
The dysfunction observed during timing partially coincided with deficits for cognitive control functions. We hypothesize that a dysfunctional temporal/cognitive control network underlies the persistent cognitive impairment observed in SZ.