Scientific publications

Evaluation of Dietary and Alcohol Drinking Patterns in Patients with Excess Body Weight in a Spanish Cohort: Impact on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

Nov 17, 2023 | Magazine: Nutrients

Maite Aguas-Ayesa  1   2 , Patricia Yárnoz-Esquiroz  1   2   3 , Laura Olazarán  1   2   3 , Carolina M Perdomo  1   2 , Marta García-Goñi  1 , Patricia Andrada  1 , Javier Escalada  1 , Camilo Silva  1   2   3 , Ascensión Marcos  4 , Gema Frühbeck  1   2   3


Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentarism coexist with a rising incidence of excess weight and associated comorbidities.

We aimed to analyze the dietary and drinking patterns of patients with excess weight, their main characteristics, plausible gender differences and impact on cardiometabolic risk factors, with a particular focus on the potential contribution of beer consumption.

Data from 200 consecutive volunteers (38 ± 12 years; 72% females) living with overweight or class I obesity attending the obesity unit to lose weight were studied. Food frequency questionnaires and 24 h recalls were used. Reduced-rank regression (RRR) analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns (DPs). Anthropometry, total and visceral fat, indirect calorimetry, physical activity level, comorbidities and circulating cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed.

Study participants showed high waist circumference, adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, pro-inflammatory adipokines and low anti-inflammatory factors like adiponectin and interleukin-4. A low-fiber, high-fat, energy-dense DP was observed.

BMI showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation with energy density (r = 0.80) as well as percentage of energy derived from fat (r = 0.61). Excess weight was associated with a DP low in vegetables, legumes and whole grains at the same time as being high in sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, fat spreads, and processed meats. RRR analysis identified a DP characterized by high energy density and saturated fat exhibiting negative loadings (>-0.30) for green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fruits at the same time as showing positive factor loadings (>0.30) for processed foods, fat spreads, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets. Interestingly, for both women and men, wine represented globally the main source of total alcohol intake (p < 0.05) as compared to beer and distillates.

Beer consumption cannot be blamed as the main culprit of excess weight. Capturing the DP provides more clinically relevant and useful information. The focus on consumption of single nutrients does not resemble real-world intake behaviors.

CITATION  Nutrients. 2023 Nov 17;15(22):4824.  doi: 10.3390/nu15224824