Effects of diets on adipose tissue
Ezquerro S (1), Rodríguez A (1), Portincasa P (2), Frühbeck G (1).
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality.
An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities.
Given the medical, social and economic consequences of obesity, there is an urgent need to develop strategies to deal with this epidemic. The first approach for obesity management and prevention is the implementation of a diet combined with physical activity.
Dietary changes should be individualised, tailored to food preferences and allow for flexible approaches to reducing calorie intake in order to increase the motivation and compliance of overweight and obese patients.
The present review summarizes the compelling evidence showing body composition changes, impact on cardiometabolism and potential adverse effects of very-low calorie, low- and high-carbohydrate, high-protein or low-fat diets.
The use of macronutrients during the preprandial and postprandial state has been also reviewed to better understand the metabolic changes induced by different dietary interventions.