Scientific publications

Early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration: update and clinical review

García-Layana A (1,2,3), Cabrera-López F (4,5), García-Arumí J (6,7,8), Arias-Barquet L (9,10), Ruiz-Moreno JM (3,11,12).

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
(2 Sociedad Española de Retina y Vítreo (SERV), Madrid, Spain.
(3 Red Telemática de Investigación Cooperativa Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
(4 Service of Ophthalmology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
(5) Las Palmas Gran Canaria University, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
(6) Department of Retina and Vitreous, Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular (IMO), Barcelona, Spain.
(7) Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
(8) Hospital Universitario Valle Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain.
(9) Section of Medical-Surgical Retina, Service of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain.
(10) University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
(11) Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, Spain.
(12) Vissum Corporación Oftalmológica, Madrid, Spain.

Magazine: Clinical Interventions in Aging

Date: Oct 3, 2017



Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in developed countries.

With the aging of population, AMD will become globally an increasingly important and prevalent disease worldwide. It is a complex disease whose etiology is associated with both genetic and environmental risk factors.

An extensive decline in the quality of life and progressive need of daily living assistance resulting from AMD among those most severely affected highlights the essential role of preventive strategies, particularly advising patients to quit smoking.

In addition, maintaining a healthy diet, controlling other risk factors (such as hypertension, obesity, and atherosclerosis), and the use of nutritional supplements (antioxidants) are recommendable. Genetic testing may be especially important in patients with a family history of AMD.

Recently, unifying criteria for the clinical classification of AMD, defining no apparent aging changes; normal aging changes; and early, intermediate, and late AMD stages, are of value in predicting AMD risk of progression and in establishing recommendations for the diagnosis, therapeutic approach, and follow-up of patients.

The present review is focused on early and intermediate AMD and presents a description of the clinical characteristics and ophthalmological findings for these stages, together with algorithms for the diagnosis and management of patients, which are easily applicable in daily clinical practice.

CITATION  Clin Interv Aging. 2017 Oct 3;12:1579-1587. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S142685. eCollection 2017.



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