Detailed Exploration around 4-Aminoquinolines Chemical Space to Navigate the Lysine Methyltransferase G9a and DNA Methyltransferase Biological Spaces
Obdulia Rabal, Juan Antonio Sánchez-Arias, Edurne San José-Enériz, Xabier Agirre, Irene de Miguel, Leire Garate, Estibaliz Miranda, Elena Sáez, Sergio Roa, José Angel Martínez-Climent, Yingying Liu, Wei Wu, Musheng Xu, Felipe Prosper, Julen Oyarzabal
Epigenetic regulators that exhibit aberrant enzymatic activities or expression profiles are potential therapeutic targets for cancers. Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. Recently, molecules bearing a 4-aminoquinoline scaffold were reported as dual inhibitors of these targets and showed a significant in vivo efficacy in animal models of hematological malignancies.
Here, we report a detailed exploration around three growing vectors born by this chemotype. Exploring this chemical space led to the identification of features to navigate G9a and DNMT1 biological spaces: not only their corresponding exclusive areas, selective compounds, but also common spaces. Thus, we identified from selective G9a and first-in-class DNMT1 inhibitors, >1 log unit between their IC50 values, with IC50 < 25 nM (e.g., 43 and 26, respectively) to equipotent inhibitors with IC50 < 50 nM for both targets (e.g., 13). Their ADME/Tox profiling and antiproliferative efficacies, versus some cancer cell lines, are also reported.