Comparison of different scales for the evaluation of anxiety and compliance with anesthetic induction in children undergoing scheduled major outpatient surgery
Alberto Vieco-García 1 2 , Amanda López-Picado 3 4 , Manuel Fuentes 5 , Laura Francisco-González 1 , Belén Joyanes 1 , Carmen Soto 6 , Ana Garcia de la Aldea 1 , Carlos Gonzalez-Perrino 7 , Esther Aleo 8 9
Introduction: Anxiety in children triggered by a scheduled surgical intervention is a major issue due to its frequency and consequences. Preoperative anxiety is associated with increased patient fear and agitation on anesthetic induction.
The aim of this study is to compare three preoperative anxiety scales for children undergoing elective outpatient surgery, and to correlate each of these tools with the degree of patient compliance on induction, as assessed by the Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC).
Methods: An observational prospective study was performed on a cohort of children with ages between 2 and 16 years old, scheduled for outpatient surgery. Anxiety was assessed upon arrival to the hospital (M0), during transfer to the surgical unit (M1), and in the operating room during anesthetic induction (M2). Anxiety in the parents (measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI) and in the children (measured with the Spence Anxiety Scale-Pediatric, SCAS-P, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Children, STAIC, and Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, m-YPAS) was assessed. Compliance with anesthetic induction was assessed with ICC.
Results: The study included 76 patients (72.4% male, median age 7.9 years). Anxiety scores (m-YPAS) increased as the moment of surgery approached, being greater at the entrance to the surgical unit (M0 = 26.1 ± 9.5; M1 = 31.8 ± 18.1; M2 = 33.5 ± 21.1). A strong correlation was found between ICC scale and m-YPAS at M1 (0.738) and M2 timepoints (0.794), but not with the rest of scales at M0.
Conclusions: Standard anxiety assessment scales do not predict the quality of anesthetic induction. m-YPAS scale can detect increasing anxiety in children as they approach the surgical procedure and this correlates strongly with a worse anesthetic induction, defined by higher score on ICC scale.