Clinical phenotypes within non-surgical patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis based on response to antiepileptic drugs
Gomez-Ibañez A (1), Gasca-Salas C, Urrestarazu E, Viteri C.
(1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Date: Jan 22, 2013Neurology [SP] Neurophysiology [SP]
To evaluate evolution and elucidate clinical phenotypes related to prognosis of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs (AED).
Forty-seven out of 68 MTLE-HS patients treated between January 2005 and June 2010 were retrospectively studied for demographic, clinical and outcome data.
The population was divided into drug-responder and drug-resistant patients; the latter was divided, according to the duration of the seizure-free periods along their evolution, into patients with at least one seizure-free period longer than one year and those with shorter periods. Variables were compared between drug-responders vs drug-resistants and drug-resistants with long seizure-free periods vs drug-resistants without it.
There were 7 (15%) drug-responders, 39 (83%) drug-resistants and 1 patient (2%) with an undetermined response. Eighteen (46%) drug-resistant individuals had seizure-free periods longer than one year, with mean duration of 46 months (3.8 years).
Since no factor was statistically associated with long seizure-free period within drug-resistants, we can clinically distinguish two phenotypes: women with left HS and late onset of seizures, with poor prognosis, and men with right HS and earlier appearance of seizures, attaining a better outcome. Twenty out of 47 (42.5%) patients followed an intermittent pattern of epilepsy.
Non-surgical MTLE-HS drug-resistant patients can achieve long seizure-free periods with AED, but relapses are common. Female gender, left or bilateral lesion and later onset of seizures seem to be bad prognosis factors within MTLE-HS drug-resistant patients.
CITATION Seizure. 2013 Jan;22(1):20-3. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2012.09.010. Epub 2012 Oct 5
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