Ortiz JR, Percaz JA, Carrascosa F.
Departamento de Anestesiología y Cuidados Intensivos, Clínica Universitaria de Navarra. Facultad de Medicina.
Cisatracurium is one of ten isomers that form the racemic mix of atracurium (51W89 or 1 R-cis, 1'R-cis atracurium). It is three times more potent than atracurium itself and hemodynamically stable thanks to its scarce release of histamine.
Cisatracurium is hydrolyzed mainly by the pathway of Hofmann (77%) and to a lesser degree it is metabolized by organ-dependent modes (mainly by the kidney (16%)). Dose therefore hardly needs to be changed for elderly patients or those with liver, kidney or cardiovascular disease.
The calculated ED95 is 0.05 mg.kg-1 (0.04 mg.kg-1 in children), although a dose two to four times greater is used under clinical conditions to shorten tracheal intubation time because of low onset of blockade, particularly in comparison with rocuronium. The period of deep blockade (lack of response to neurostimulation) is prolonged by the higher dose, but recovery is dose-independent and recovery indices are similar.
Cisatracurium has proven useful in intensive care because of its hemodynamic stability, which is comparable to that of steroid derivatives but with faster recovery from blockade once administration is discontinued. Its metabolism predominantly through Hofmann's pathway, with less laudanosine formation than is produced by atracurium, is also appreciated.
Cisatracurium is described as the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant of choice for medium-to-long-term surgery on hemodynamically unstable patients or those with kidney or liver disease, and for neuromuscular blockade in intensive care.
CITATION Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1998 Jun-Jul;45(6):242-7