Cardiotrophin-1 is expressed in adipose tissue and upregulated in the metabolic syndrome
Natal C., Fortuño M.A., Restituto P., Bazán A., Colina I., Díez J., Varo N.
Adipose tissue is a target for cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a cytokine member of the IL-6 family of cytokines that is involved in cardiac growth and dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether adipocytes are a source of CT-1 and whether CT-1 is overexpressed in diseases characterized by increased fat depots [i.e., the metabolic syndrome (MS)].
Thus this work aimed 1) to test whether adipose tissue expresses CT-1 and whether CT-1 expression can be modulated and 2) to compare serum CT-1 levels in subjects with and without MS diagnosed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.
Gene and protein expression of CT-1 was determined by real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CT-1 expression progressively increased, along with differentiation time from preadipocyte to mature adipocyte in 3T3-L1 cells. CT-1 expression was enhanced by glucose in a dose-dependent manner in these cells. mRNA and protein CT-1 expression was also demonstrated in human adipose biopsies. Immunostaining showed positive staining in adipocytes. Finally, increased CT-1 serum levels were observed in patients with MS compared with control subjects (127 +/- 9 vs. 106 +/- 4 ng/ml, P < 0.05). Circulating levels of CT-1 were associated with glucose levels (r = 0.2, P < 0.05).
Taken together, our data suggest that adipose tissue can be recognized as a source of CT-1, which could account for the high circulating levels of CT-1 in patients with MS.
CITATION Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;294(1):E52-60