Scientific publications

Cardiometabolic risk stratification using a novel obesity phenotyping system based on body adiposity and waist circumference

Mar 6, 2024 | Magazine: European Journal of Internal Medicine

Javier Gómez-Ambrosi  1 , Victoria Catalán  2 , Beatriz Ramírez  2 , Laura Salmón-Gómez  3 , Rocío Marugán-Pinos  4 , Amaia Rodríguez  2 , Sara Becerril  2 , Maite Aguas-Ayesa  5 , Patricia Yárnoz-Esquíroz  6 , Laura Olazarán  6 , Carolina M Perdomo  5 , Camilo Silva  7 , Javier Escalada  7 , Gema Frühbeck  8

Background: The estimation of obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk does not usually take into account body composition or the distribution of adiposity. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical usefulness of a novel obesity phenotyping system based on the combination of actual body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC) according to the cardiometabolic risk estimation.

Methods: A classification matrix combining BF% and WC as measures of both amount and distribution of adiposity establishing nine body phenotypes (3 BF% x 3 WC) was developed. Individuals were grouped in five different cardiometabolic risk phenotypes. We conducted a validation study in a large cohort of White subjects from both genders representing a wide range of ages and adiposity (n = 12,754; 65 % females, aged 18-88 years).

Results: The five risk groups using the matrix combination of BF% and WC exhibited a robust linear distribution regarding cardiometabolic risk, estimated by the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score, showing a continuous increase between groups with significant differences (P < 0.001) among them, as well as in other cardiometabolic risk factors. An additional 24 % of patients at very high risk was detected with the new classification system proposed (P < 0.001) as compared to an equivalent matrix using BMI and WC instead of BF% and WC.

Conclusions: A more detailed phenotyping should be a priority in the diagnosis and management of patients with obesity. Our classification system allows to gradually estimate the cardiometabolic risk according to BF% and WC, thus representing a novel and useful tool for both research and clinical practice.

CITATION  Eur J Intern Med. 2024 Mar 6:S0953-6205(24)00082-7.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2024.02.027