Brain oscillations and Parkinson disease
Guglielmo Foffani 1 , Manuel Alegre 2
Brain oscillations have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) for a long time mainly due to the fundamental oscillatory nature of parkinsonian rest tremor.
Over the years, this association has been extended to frequencies well above that of tremor, largely owing to the opportunities offered by deep brain stimulation (DBS) to record electrical activity directly from the patients' basal ganglia.
This chapter reviews the results of research on brain oscillations in PD focusing on theta (4-7Hz), beta (13-35Hz), gamma (70-80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (200-400Hz). For each of these oscillations, we describe localization and interaction with brain structures and between frequencies, changes due to dopamine intake, task-related modulation, and clinical relevance.
The study of brain oscillations will also help to dissect the mechanisms of action of DBS. Overall, the chapter tentatively depicts PD in terms of "oscillopathy."