Bone mineral density and bone metabolism in children treated for bone sarcomas
Ruza E, Sierrasesúmaga L, Azcona C, Patiño-Garcia A.
In adolescent bone sarcoma patients, bone mass acquisition is potentially compromised at a time in which it should be at a maximum.
To evaluate the problem we measured bone mineral density (BMD) and serum markers of bone formation and resorption in a series of pediatric patients with bone tumors. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, at clinical remission, for lumbar spine and the neck of the femur in 38 osteosarcoma and 25 Ewing's sarcoma patients.
Mean age was 20.65 and 19.13 y respectively. Serum markers of bone metabolism were: OC, PICP, ICTP, 25-OH vit D and 1,25-(OH)(2) vit D, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and intact PTH. Serum was sampled throughout anti-tumoral treatments and follow-up. We analyzed 85 samples from 59 osteosarcoma patients and 54 samples from 36 Ewing's sarcoma patients.
Patients had decreased lumbar and femoral BMD. The decrease was more pronounced in pubertal patients compared with those who had completed pubertal development at the time of disease diagnosis. Multivariate analysis indicated that sex, age, weight and BMI were significant in lumbar BMD depletion. Weight and BMI were significant in femoral BMD depletion. Serum markers of bone formation (PICP and OC) and resorption (ICTP) were, throughout, lower than reference values. Significant alterations in other markers were also observed.
Up to a third of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma patients in clinical remission had some degree of BMD deficit. The corresponding increased risk of pathologic bone fractures constitutes a reduction in future quality of life.