Benefits of telematic monitoring for weight loss in overweight and obese patients in times of confinement
Isabel Higuera Pulgar 1 , Isabel Yagüe Lobo 1 , Elena Sánchez Campayo 1 , Lorena López Lora 1 , María Currás Freixes 1 , Magdalena de la Higuera López-Frías 1
Introduction: the pandemic originated by SARS-Cov-2 in 2019 led to eating habits and physical exercise changes due to home confinement measures. The follow-up of patients in treatment for weight loss through telematic consultation could be a useful tool to prevent treatment failure.
Objective: to describe the evolution of anthropometric parameters of patients under follow-up for weight loss through telematic consultation.
Methods: a two-stage prospective study (before and after confinement) with a telematic intervention in adult patients under regular follow-up for overweight and obesity. Demographic variables and body composition parameters were analyzed by bioimpendance. In addition, the differences in the presence of drug treatment with GLP-1 hormone (liraglutide or semaglutide) adjuvants were also analyzed. The variables were studied using Wilcoxon's test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation. Significance was considered for p ≤ 0.05.
Results: a total of 97 patients were included, before confinement 42.3 % were overweight (BMI < 30 kg/m2), 36.1 % were obese grade I (BMI = 30-34.9 kg/m2), 16.4 % were obese grade II (BMI = 35-39.9 kg/m2), and 5.2 % had BMI > 40 kg/m2. In all, 30.9 % had prediabetes and 9.3 % had type-2 diabetes. Between both consultations, 81.4 % of patients lost 4.2 ± 3.4 % of their weight, with a significant mean decrease in fat mass of 3.16 ± 4.4 kg. The group on pharmacological treatment with GLP-1 hormone analogs presented a significantly higher average fat loss without significant loss of skeletal muscle mass.
Conclusions: telematic monitoring seems to be a useful tool to prevent weight gain in patients with restricted mobility. A telematic intervention that contains dietary advice and exercise, as a reinforcement to hypocaloric diet, helps to achieve weight loss with a predominant fat component. The presence of drug treatment with GLP-1 hormone analogues appears to significantly help maintain skeletal muscle mass during weight loss.