Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: high prevalence of graft loss for death-related malignancies and cardiovascular risk factors
Errasti P., Manrique J., Lavilla J., Rossich E., Hernández A., Pujante D., Ndarabu A., García N., Purroy A.
Renal Unit. University Clinic. University of Navarra. Pamplona (Navarra, Spain)
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disease with multiple extrarenal manifestations. It accounts for 7% to 11% of patients receiving dialysis or renal transplantation (RT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Europe.
We analyzed retrospectively the causes of death, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and the patient and graft survivals in 62 consecutive ADPKD patients who received 63 cadaveric grafts (29 men and 34 women), of the 600 RTs performed between 1980-2001. The diagnosis of ADPKD was established by family history and ultrasound techniques. At present, 50 patients (79.4%) have functioning grafts, with a mean follow-up of 84.7 months (range, 12-255), and 13 patients have lost their grafts.
The main cause of failure was patient death with a functioning graft (9 cases). Malignancies occurred in 5 patients, including 2 lymphomas, 1 renal carcinoma, 1 pancreas sarcoma, and 1 lung cancer associated with infection. Three patients died of cardiocerebrovascular events, and 1 patient of pneumonia. One patient lost the graft after decreasing the immunosuppression for an obstructing colon cancer. Three additional patients now on dialysis lost their grafts due to chronic rejection in 2 cases and primary nonfunction in 1 case.
The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among the 50 patients with functional grafts were: hypertension, 70%; hypercholesterolemia, 62%; hyperhomocysteinemia, 30%; hyperfibrinogenemia, 68%; increased lipoprotein (a), 18%; microalbuminuria, 22%; hyperuricemia, 48%; hyperparathyroidism, 24%; overweight status, 24%; and nonlethal myocardial infarction, 10%.
We conclude that ADPKD patients have good graft and patient survivals, and that the presence of malignancy is the main cause of death and graft failure at our center.
CITATION Transplant Proc. 2003 Aug;35(5):1717-9