Association between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and intima media thickness in a population at high cardiovascular risk
Nuria Goñi Ruiz 1 , Miguel Ángel Martínez González 2 , Jordi Salas Salvadó 3 , Pilar Buil Cosiales 4 , Javier Diez Espino 5 , Eduardo Martinez Vila 6 , Pablo Irimia Sierra 7 , Emilio Ros Rahola 8 , Estefania Toledo Atucha 9
Background: increased carotid íntima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of atherosclerosis and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Although a beneficial effect of Mediterranean diets, in particular, enhanced with virgin olive oil and nuts, on longitudinal changes in IMT has been reported, the association between carbohydrates and the development of atherosclerosis is still unclear.
Objective: to assess the association between glycemic index (IG) and glycemic load (CG) of the diet and intima media thickness (GIMC) in a population at high cardiovascular risk with no clinical symptoms.
Methods: one hundred eighty seven participants of the PREDIMED-NAVARRA center (PREDIMED means in Spanish "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea") were randomly selected to undergo baseline and 1-year measurement of GIMC. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire.
Participants were categorized into four groups of energy-adjusted IG and CG intake. Multivariate analysis models (ANCOVA) were used to study the association between dietary IG and CG and GIMC and its changes.
Results: in our study we found no significant association between IG or CG and GIMC at baseline or after one year.