An Experimental Murine Model to Assess Biofilm Persistence on Commercial Breast Implant Surfaces
Francisco Carmona-Torre 1 2 , Leire Fernández-Ciriza 3 , Carlos Berniz 4 , Cristina Gomez-Martinez de Lecea 4 , Ana Ramos 3 , Bernardo Hontanilla 2 4 , Jose L Del Pozo 1 2 3
Capsular contracture is the most frequently associated complication following breast implant placement. Biofilm formation on the surface of such implants could significantly influence the pathogenesis of this complication.
The objective of this study was to design an experimental model of breast implant infection that allowed us to compare the in vivo S. epidermidis ability to form and perpetuate biofilms on commonly used types of breast implants (i.e., macrotexturized, microtexturized, and smooth). A biofilm forming S. epidermidis strain (ATCC 35984) was used for all experiments.
Three different implant surface types were tested: McGhan BIOCELL® (i.e., macrotexturized); Mentor Siltex® (i.e., microtexturized); and Allergan Natrelle Smooth® (i.e., smooth). Two different infection scenarios were simulated.
The ability to form biofilm on capsules and implants over time was evaluated by quantitative post-sonication culture of implants and capsules biopsies. This experimental model allows the generation of a subclinical staphylococcal infection associated with a breast implant placed in the subcutaneous tissue of Wistar rats.
The probability of generating an infection was different according to the type of implant studied and to the time from implantation to implant removal. Infection was achieved in 88.9% of macrotextured implants (i.e., McGhan), 37.0% of microtexturized implants (i.e., Mentor), and 18.5% of smooth implants (i.e., Allergan Smooth) in the short-term (p < 0.001). Infection was achieved in 47.2% of macrotextured implants, 2.8% of microtexturized implants, and 2.8% of smooth implants (i.e., Allergan Smooth) in the long-term (p < 0.001).
There was a clear positive correlation between biofilm formation on any type of implant and capsule colonization/infection. Uniformly, the capsules formed around the macro- or microtexturized implants were consistently macroscopically thicker than those formed around the smooth implants regardless of the time at which they were removed (i.e., 1-2 weeks or 3-5 weeks).
We have shown that there is a difference in the ability of S epidermidis to develop in vivo biofilms on macrotextured, microtextured, and smooth implants. Smooth implants clearly thwart bacterial adherence and, consequently, biofilm formation and persistence are hindered.
CITATION Microorganisms. 2022 Oct 11;10(10):2004. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms10102004