Amyloid PET in neurodegenerative diseases with dementia
Camacho V (1), Gómez-Grande A (2), Sopena P (3), García-Solís D (4), Gómez Río M (5), Lorenzo C (6), Rubí S (7), Arbizu J (8); por el Grupo de Neuroimagen SEMNIM.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia.
Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss.
Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI).
Recently specific recommendations have been created as a consensus statement on the appropriate use of the imaging biomarkers, including amyloid PET: early-onset cognitive impairment/dementia, atypical forms of AD, mild cognitive impairment with early age of onset, and to differentiate between AD and other neurodegenerative diseases that occur with dementia.
Amyloid PET is also contributing to the development of new therapies for AD, as well as in research studies for the study of other neurodegenerative diseases that occur with dementia where the deposition of Aβ amyloid is involved in its pathogenesis. In this paper, we review some general concepts and study the use of amyloid PET in depth and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases and other diagnostic techniques.