Surgery is not expected to treat the cause of obesity; instead it modifies the functioning of the digestive system to achieve the aforementioned objectives.
The choice between the various types of surgery depends on the clinical characteristics of the patient, possible associated diseases, as well as their eating habits and psychological profile.
Ultimately, it will be the specialised surgeon who, along with specialists from Endocrinology and Nutrition, establishes which approach to use whilst taking into account the efficiency, advantages, and disadvantages of the different techniques:
This technique involves sectioning the stomach to make it smaller and sewing up the intestine. In this way, the quantity of food ingested is reduced and its absorption is limited to a specific section of the intestine.
Patients feel satiated earlier than before and are less tempted by food.
This surgery is recommended for patients with a BMI over 40, or 35 if they suffer from other associated diseases.
After the operation, the average weight loss is usually around 30% of their total weight, and 70% of excess weight (fat).
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This procedure sections the stomach with a mechanical stapler in order to create a long and stretched out tube and the rest of the stomach is removed.
In this way, the passage through which the food travels is the same as before the surgery.
This operation is used in patients who would have a high risk level if they underwent a long surgical procedure, in those with a very high BMI or those who don't want their surgery to restrict and reduce their food absorption.
This technique not only reduces the size of the stomach, but also reduces the intestine's capacity to absorb food. In this procedure, results are achieved due to the reduction of food absorption.
Adjustable gastric band
The adjustable gastric band is an inflatable band that is placed around the higher portion of the stomach, in order to create a small reservoir to limit the quantity of food and the speed at which it passes through the body.
This band is connected to a small subcutaneous device with which the higher or lower restriction of the passing of food is controlled.
Therefore, this is a restrictive type of bariatric surgery.
Although the majority of patients are successful when they follow specialists' advice and follow-up care after surgery, sometimes revision surgery is required.
Revision surgery may be carried out due to insufficient weight loss or regaining weight, unresolved comorbidities and/or medical complications associated with obesity.