Repercussions of absolute and time-rated BMI "yo-yo" fluctuations on cardiovascular stress-related morbidities within the vascular-metabolic CUN cohort
Laura Sánchez-Iñigo 1 , D Navarro-González 1 , D Martinez-Urbistondo 2 , J C Pastrana 2 , A Fernandez-Montero 3 4 , J A Martinez 5 6 7
Aims: The association between body mass index (BMI) fluctuation and BMI fluctuation rate with cardiovascular stress morbidities in a Caucasian European cohort was evaluated to ascertain the impact of weight cycling.
Methods: A total of 4,312 patients of the Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort (VMCUN cohort) were examined and followed up during 9.35 years ( ± 4.39). Cox proportional hazard ratio analyses were performed to assess the risk of developing cardiovascular stress-related diseases (CVDs) across quartiles of BMI fluctuation, measured as the average successive variability (ASV) (ASV = |BMIt0 - BMIt1| + |BMIt1 - BMIt2| + |BMIt2-BMIt3| +…+ |BMItn - 1 - BMItn|/n - 1), and quartiles of BMI fluctuation rate (ASV/year).
Results: There were 436 incident cases of CVD-associated events involving 40,323.32 person-years of follow-up. A progressively increased risk of CVD in subjects with greater ASV levels was found. Also, a higher level of ASV/year was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CVD stress independent of confounding factors with a value of 3.71 (95% CI: 2.71-5.07) for those in the highest quartile and 1.82 (95% CI: 1.33-2.50) for those in the third quartile.
Conclusions: The BMI fluctuation rate seems to be a better predictor than BMI fluctuation of the potential development of cardiovascular stress morbidities. The time-rated weight fluctuations are apparently more determinant in increasing the risk of a CVD than the weight fluctuation itself, which is remarkable in subjects under "yo-yo" weight patterns for precision medicine.