- [ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NUTRITION]
- [GENERAL AND DIGESTIVE SURGERY]
- [ANESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE]
- [MEDICAL CHECK-UPS]
Uroguanylin prevents hepatic steatosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and fibrosis in obesity-associated NAFLD
Eva M Fernández-Sáez 1 , Maite Losarcos 1 , Sara Becerril 2 , Víctor Valentí 3 , Rafael Moncada 4 , Marina Martín 5 , María A Burrell 6 , Victoria Catalán 2 , Javier Gómez-Ambrosi 2 , Carmen Mugueta 7 , Inmaculada Colina 8 , Camilo Silva 9 , Javier Escalada 9 , Gema Frühbeck 10 , Amaia Rodríguez 11
Background: The biological mediators supporting the resolution of liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis after bariatric surgery in patients with obesity and NAFLD remain unclear. We sought to analyze whether uroguanylin and guanylin, two gut hormones involved in the regulation of satiety, food preference and adiposity, are involved in the amelioration of obesity-associated NAFLD after bariatric surgery.
Methods: Proguanylin (GUCA2A) and prouroguanylin (GUCA2B) were measured in 214 participants undergoing bariatric surgery with biopsy-proven NAFLD diagnosis. Pathways involved in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial network and fibrogenesis were evaluated in liver biopsies (n = 137). The effect of guanylin and uroguanylin on these metabolic functions was assessed in HepG2 hepatocytes and LX-2 hepatic stellate cells (HSC) under lipotoxic and profibrogenic conditions.
Results: Plasma and hepatic expression of GUCA2B were decreased in obesity-associated NAFLD. Both GUCA2A and GUCA2B levels were increased after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in parallel to the improved liver function. The liver of patients with type 2 diabetes showed impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation, biogenesis, dynamics as well as increased fibrosis. Uroguanylin diminished the lipotoxicity in palmitate-treated HepG2 hepatocytes, evidenced by decresased steatosis and lipogenic factors, as well as increased mitochondrial network expression, AMPK-induced β-oxidation and oxygen consumption rate. Additionally, uroguanylin, but not guanylin, reversed HSC myofibroblast transdifferentiation as well as fibrogenesis after TGF-β1 stimulation.
Conclusions: Uroguanylin constitutes a protective factor against lipotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction and fibrosis. Increased GUCA2B levels might contribute to improve liver injury in patients with obesity-associated NAFLD after bariatric surgery.
CITATION Metabolism. 2023 Jul 28;155663. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2023.155663