Smoldering multiple myeloma: when to observe and when to treat?
Mateos MV(1), San Miguel JF(1).
(1) From the University Hospital of Salamanca/IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain; Clínica Universidad de Navarra/CIMA, Navarra, Spain.
Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic disorder characterized by the presence of at least 3 g/dL of serum M-protein and/or 10% to 60% bone marrow plasma cell infiltration with no myeloma-defining event. The risk of progression to active multiple myeloma (MM) is not uniform and several markers are useful for identifying patients at high risk of progression.
The definition of the disease has recently been revisited and patients with asymptomatic MM at 80% to 90% of progression risk at 2 years are now considered to have MM. Although the current standard of care is not to treat, a randomized trial in patients with high-risk SMM that compared early treatment versus observation demonstrated that early intervention resulted in substantial benefits in terms of time to progression and overall survival (OS).
These findings highlight the need to follow a correct diagnosis by an accurate risk stratification to plan an optimized follow-up according to the risk of disease progression.
CITATION Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2015;35:e484-92. doi: 10.14694/EdBook_AM.2015.35.e484.