Smell-taste dysfunctions in extreme weight/eating conditions: analysis of hormonal and psychological interactions
Fernández-Aranda F (1,2,3), Agüera Z (4,5), Fernández-García JC (5,6), Garrido-Sanchez L (5,6), Alcaide-Torres J (6), Tinahones FJ (5,6), Giner-Bartolomé C (4,5), Baños RM (5,7), Botella C (5,8), Cebolla A (5,8), de la Torre R (5,9,10), Fernández-Real JM (5,11), Ortega FJ (5,11), Frühbeck G (5,12), Gómez-Ambrosi J (5,12), Granero R (5,13), Islam MA (4,5), Jiménez-Murcia S (4,5,14), Tárrega S (13), Menchón JM (4,14,15), Fagundo AB (4,5), Sancho C (4), Estivill X (16,17), Treasure J (18), Casanueva FF (19,20).
(1) Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Bellvitge-IDIBELL, c/Feixa Llarga s/n, 08907, Barcelona, Spain.
(2) CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain.
(3) Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
(4) Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Bellvitge-IDIBELL, c/Feixa Llarga s/n, 08907, Barcelona, Spain.
(5) CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain.
(6) Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de Victoria, Málaga, Spain.
(7) Department of Psychological, Personality, Evaluation and Treatment of the University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
(8) Department of Basic Psychology, Clinic and Psychobiology of the University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.
(9) Department of Health and Experimental Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
(10) Integrated Pharmacology and Systems Neurosciences Research Group, Neuroscience Research Program, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.
(11) Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona (IdlBGi) Hospital Dr Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain.
(12) Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra - IdiSNA, Pamplona, Spain.
(13) Departament of Psychobiology and Methodology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
(14) Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
(15) CIBER de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain.
(16) Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.
(17) Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.
(18) Eating Disorders Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London, UK.
(19) CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Madrid, Spain.
(20) Endocrine Division, Department of Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario U. de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela University, Choupana Street sn, PO Box 563, 15780, Santiago, Spain.
(1) The objective of this study is to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females in extreme weight/eating conditions (EWC) and (2) to explore the interaction between smell/taste capacity, gastric hormones, eating behavior and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprised 239 females in EWC [64 Anorexia nervosa (AN) and 80 age-matched healthy-weight controls, and 59 obese and 36 age-matched healthy-weight controls]. Smell and taste assessments were performed through "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips," respectively.
The assessment measures included the eating disorders inventory-2, the symptom check list 90-revised, and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, as well as peptides from the gastrointestinal tract [Ghrelin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin]. Smell capacity was differentially associated across EWC groups.
Smell was clearly impaired in obese participants and increased in AN (hyposmia in Obesity was 54.3 and 6.4 % in AN), but taste capacity did not vary across EWC. Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects and were related to smell impairment.
EWC individuals showed a distinct smell profile and circulating ghrelin levels compared to controls. Smell capacity and ghrelin may act as moderators of emotional eating and BMI.
CITATION Endocrine. 2016 Feb;51(2):256-67. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0684-9. Epub 2015 Jul 22.