Preoperative multimodality imaging of pectus excavatum: State of the art review and call for standardization
Rodríguez-Granillo GA (1), Martínez-Ferro M (2), Capuñay C (3), Bellia-Munzón G (2), Deviggiano A (3), Raggio I (4), Fernandez-Rostello E (5), Hurtado Hoyo E (6), Bastarrika G (7), Carrascosa P (3).
Image acquisition protocols and reports in patients with pectus excavatum (PEX) differ significantly from routine examinations, and no imaging modality can enable a comprehensive assessment of PEX severity and cardiac impact within a single examination. We therefore attempt to establish recommendations about preoperative imaging in patients with PEX.
Chest computed tomography (CT), stress echocardiography (Echo), and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allow the evaluation of specific information regarding structural and functional characteristics of vital importance to assess surgical candidacy and define surgical strategies. We sought to provide a multidisciplinary state of the art document involving thoracic surgeons, radiologists, and cardiologists; to establish recommendations about the variables to be included in the reports of the imaging examinations performed in patients with PEX.
We provide recommendations for preoperative image acquisition and analysis, aimed at the assessment of the severity of the chest wall deformity (CT); the site of maximum cardiac compression, extent of increased interventricular dependence, and presence of pericardial effusion (CMR); and the effect of PEX on the functional capacity and exercise-related systolic and/or diastolic function, and tricuspid annulus compression (Echo).
This multidisciplinary state of the art document involving thoracic surgeons, radiologists, and cardiologists provides recommendations about preoperative imaging for patients with PEX.