Patterns of recurrence after laparoscopic versus open abdominal radical hysterectomy in patients with cervical cancer: a propensity-matched analysis
Giorgio Bogani 1 , Fabio Ghezzi 2 , Luis Chiva 3 , Baldo Gisone 4 , Ciro Pinelli 4 , Andrea Dell'Acqua 5 , Jvan Casarin 4 , Antonino Ditto 5 , Francesco Raspagliesi 6
Objective: Recent evidence has suggested that laparoscopic radical hysterectomy is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in comparison with open abdominal radical hysterectomy. The aim of our study was to identify patterns of recurrence after laparoscopic and open abdominal radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer.
Methods: This a retrospective multi-institutional study evaluating patients with recurrent cervical cancer after laparoscopic and open abdominal surgery performed between January 1990 and December 2018. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years old, radical hysterectomy (type B or type C), no recurrent disease, and clinical follow-up >30 days.
The primary endpoint was to evaluate patterns of first recurrence following laparoscopic and open abdominal radical hysterectomy. The secondary endpoint was to estimate the effect of the primary surgical approach (laparoscopy and open surgery) in post-recurrence survival outcomes (event-free survival and overall survival).
In order to reduce possible confounding factors, we applied a propensity-matching algorithm. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier model.
Results: A total of 1058 patients were included in the analysis (823 underwent open abdominal radical hysterectomy and 235 patients underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy). The study included 117 (14.2%) and 35 (14.9%) patients who developed recurrent cervical cancer after open or laparoscopic surgery, respectively.
Applying a propensity matched comparison (1:2), we reduced the population to 105 patients (35 vs 70 patients with recurrence after laparoscopic and open radical hysterectomy). Median follow-up time was 39.1 (range 4-221) months and 32.3 (range 4-124) months for patients undergoing open and laparoscopic surgery, respectively.
Patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy had shorter progression-free survival than patients undergoing open abdominal surgery (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.97; p=0.005). Patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy were more likely to develop intrapelvic recurrences (74% vs 34%; p<0.001) and peritoneal carcinomatosis (17% vs 1%; p=0.005) than patients undergoing open surgery.
Conclusions: Patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy are at higher risk of developing intrapelvic recurrences and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Further evidence is needed in order to corroborate our findings.