Oncostatin M enhances the antiviral effects of type I interferon and activates immunostimulatory functions in liver epithelial cells
Larrea E, Aldabe R, Gonzalez I, Segura V, Sarobe P, Echeverria I, Prieto J.
Division of Hepatology and Gene Therapy, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
Oncostatin M (OSM) is released together with type I interferon (IFN) by activated dendritic cells, suggesting a concerted action of these cytokines in the biological response against infection.
We found that OSM increases the antiviral effect of IFN-alpha in Huh7 hepatoma cells infected with hepatitis A or hepatitis C virus and synergizes with IFN-alpha in the induction of antiviral genes. The combination of OSM and IFN-alpha led to upregulation of both STAT1 and STAT3 together with intense and prolonged activation of STAT1, STAT3, and Jak1. OSM with or without IFN-alpha also activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is known to enhance transcription of IFN-alpha-inducible genes. Interestingly, OSM combined with IFN-alpha strongly induced immunoproteasome genes and other genes involved in antigen processing and presentation.
Moreover, OSM, alone or in combination with IFN-alpha, upregulated relevant innate immunity molecules and increased the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 and interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ralpha) in liver cells. Hepatoma cells transfected with a plasmid encoding a viral antigen were able to activate effector T cells when pretreated with IFN-alpha plus OSM but not with each cytokine separately. Also, OSM, more than IFN-alpha, augmented the ability of Huh7 cells to transpresent IL-15 to responding lymphocytes and increased the immunostimulatory activity of liver epithelial cells by presenting a short viral peptide to sensitized cytotoxic T cells.
In conclusion, OSM enhances the antiviral effects of type I interferon and cooperates with it in the induction of adaptive immune responses to pathogens. These findings may have therapeutic implications.
CITATION J Virol. 2009 Apr;83(7):3298-311