Liver prometastatic reaction: Stimulating factors and responsive cancer phenotypes
Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha 1 , Olatz Crende 2 , Cira García de Durango 3 , Alejandro Herreros-Pomares 4 , Sandra López-Doménech 4 , Álvaro González 5 , Eva Ruiz-Casares 5 , Thierry Vilboux 6 , Riccardo Caruso 7 , Hipólito Durán 7 , Antonio Gil 7 , Benedetto Ielpo 7 , Fernando Lapuente 8 , Yolanda Quijano 7 , Emilio Vicente 7 , Leticia Vidal-Lartitegui 9 , Eduardo M Sotomayor 10
Cancer is first a localized tissue disorder, whose soluble and exosomal molecules and invasive cells induce a host response providing the stromal components of the primary tumor microenvironment (TME).
Once the TME is developed, cancer-derived molecules and cells can more efficiently spread out and a whole-body response takes place, whose pathophysiological changes may result in a paraneoplastic syndrome.
Remote organ-specific prometastatic reactions may also occur at this time, facilitating metastatic activities of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) through premetastatic niche development at targeted organs. However, additional signaling factors from the inter-organ communication network involved in the pathophysiology and comorbidities of cancer patients may also regulate prometastatic reaction-stimulating effects of cancer and non-cancer tissue factors.
This article provides a conceptual overview of our ongoing clinical research on the liver prometastatic reaction (LPR) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), their portal vein- and hepatic artery-driven LPR-Stimulating Factors (LPR-SF), and their resulting LPR-derived Metastasis-Stimulating Factors (LPR-MSF) acting on liver-invading CRC cells.
In addition, we also provide new insights on the molecular subtyping of LPR-responsive cancer phenotypes in patients with CRC and melanoma; and on how to investigate and interpret the prometastatic infrastructure in the real pathophysiological context of patients with cancer undergoing surgical procedures and receiving pharmacological treatments with multiple side effects, including those affecting the LPR, its stimulating factors and responsive cancer phenotypes.