Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: clinical and pharmacological classification
Luquin M.R., Scipioni O., Vaamonde J., Gershanik O., Obeso J.A.
Department of Neurology, Clínica Universitaria, University of Navarra, Pamplona-Spain
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) may be classified into three main categories: On dyskinesias, diphasic dyskinesias (DD), and off periods.
The study of 168 parkinsonian patients showed that about half (n = 84) showed one pattern of LID only. A combination of two was present in 68, and 16 had the three presentation patterns. A fairly good correlation between type of dyskinesia and presentation pattern was established. Chorea, myoclonus, and dystonic movements occurred during the on period. Dystonic postures, particularly affecting the feet, were mainly present in the off period, but a few patients had a diphasic presentation.
Repetitive stereotyped movements of the lower limbs always corresponded to DD. Acute pharmacological tests using dopamine agonists (subcutaneous apomorphine 3-8 mg; intravenous lisuride 0.1-0.15 mg) and dopamine antagonists (intravenous sulpiride 200-400 mg and intravenous chlorpromazine 25 mg) were performed in 40 patients. Dopamine agonists enhanced on dyskinesias and markedly reduced or abolished off period dystonia and DD. Dopamine antagonists reduced all types of LID but usually aggravated parkinsonism.
These clinical and pharmacological results indicate that LID in PD are a heterogeneous phenomenon difficult to explain on the basis of a single pathophysiological mechanism.
CITATION Mov Disord. 1992;7(2):117-24