Four-Week Neoadjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy with Concurrent Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Validation Phase II Trial
Arbea L, Martínez-Monge R, Díaz-González JA, Moreno M, Rodríguez J, Hernández JL, Sola JJ, Ramos LI, Subtil JC, Nuñez J, Chopitea A, Cambeiro M, Gaztañaga M, García-Foncillas J, Aristu J.
Department of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra, Spain.
To validate tolerance and pathological complete response rate (pCR) of a 4-week preoperative course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Patients with T3 to T4 and/or N+ rectal cancer received preoperative IMRT (47.5 Gy in 19 fractions) with concurrent capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) b.i.d., Monday to Friday) and oxaliplatin (60 mg/m(2) on Days 1, 8, and 15). Surgery was scheduled 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Primary end points were toxicity and pathological response rate. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were also analyzed.
A total of 100 patients were evaluated. Grade 1 to 2 proctitis was observed in 73 patients (73%). Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in 9% of the patients. Grade 3 proctitis in 18% of the first 50 patients led to reduction of the dose per fraction to 47.5 Gy in 20 treatments. The rate of Grade 3 proctitis decreased to 4% thereafter (odds ratio, 0.27). A total of 99 patients underwent surgery. A pCR was observed in 13% of the patients, major response (96-100% of histological response) in 48%, and pN downstaging in 78%. An R0 resection was performed in 97% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 55 months, the LC, DFS, and OS rates were 100%, 84%, and 87%, respectively.
Preoperative CAPOX-IMRT therapy (47.5 Gy in 20 fractions) is feasible and safe, and produces major pathological responses in approximately 50% of patients.
CITATION Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Jun 1;83(2):587-93. Epub 2011 Nov 11