Dynamic cardiomyoplasty. Preliminary experience
Herreros J., Alegría E., Gil O., Fernández González A.L., Iglesias I., Barba J., Zabala M.S., García M.J., Arbizu J.
Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular, Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona.
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study is to show our experience in clinical dynamic cardiomyoplasty.
PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS
Six patients with end-stage heart failure and 2 patients with left ventricular aneurysm underwent dynamic cardiomyoplasty using the latissimus dorsi muscle. The latissimus dorsi was electrically conditioned before the procedure through a lead placed under local anesthesia and connected to an external cardiac pace-maker. Surgical technique--including dissection of the latissimus dorsi and encircling of the ventricles with the muscle flap--was performed in general terms as described at the Broussais Hospital. In the first 3 patients a bipolar lead connected to a single impulse generator was used. In the other 5 patients a train of impulses cardiomyostimulator was used. Changes in systolic function were studied through Doppler-echocardiography and radionuclide studies. Changes in diastolic function were evaluated through E wave velocity and deceleration time.
Mean follow up was 9 +/- 5.7 months. No early deaths were recorded. One patient underwent emergency surgery, one week after the procedure, because of a tear of the patch used to close the wall defect after left ventricular aneurysm resection. In 2 patients a subcutaneous serous collection secondary to muscle dissection was evacuated. One patient died due to a stroke 4 months after the procedure. Another patient died after an unsuccessful coronary transluminal percutaneous angioplasty 11 months after the procedure.
An improved functional class was observed in all patients. No changes in systolic function were observed after surgery when the cardiomyoestimulator was turned-off either with echocardiography (26.7 +/- 8.6 vs 24.8 +/- 5.8% [NS]) or radionuclides (24.5 +/- 9.5 vs 20.2 +/- 8.3% [NS]). When the cardiomyostimulator was turned-on a statistically significant increase of the left ventricular ejection fraction was observed either with echocardiography (24.8 +/- 5.8 vs 37 +/- 10.3%; p < 0.05) or radionuclides (20.2 +/- 8.3 vs 33.3 +/- 12.2%; p < 0.05). This significant increase of the ejection fraction has been observed in subsequent studies. Nevertheless the differences when the cardiomyostimulator is turned-on and turned-off have decreased several months after the procedure. A significant increase of the left ventricular outflow velocity (cm/seg) was observed when the generator was turned-on (57.7 +/- 20.4 vs 75.1 +/- 17.8%; p < 0.01).
A significant increase of the dP/dt (mmHg/seg) was observed when the generator was turned-on (706.3 +/- 291.5 vs 592.6 +/- 181.6%; [NS]). No significant changes were observed on E wave velocity. A significant decrease of the deceleration time was observed several months after the procedure (p < 0.05).
We believe that dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a safe and valid surgical procedure for some patients with end stage cardiomyopathies as well as in association with Jatene's technique for the management of left ventricular aneurysms. An improvement in functional class is present and a significant increase of the left ventricular systolic function. Nevertheless it is necessary to find new systolic parameters, independent of volumetric calculations, to evaluate the mechanical support of the muscle as well as to determine the long-term pattern of electrical stimulation.
CITATION Rev Esp Cardiol. 1994 Jan;47(1):23-32